从“阿特拉斯”的惊艳后空翻到“菲多尔”人形机器人会使用各种工具,标志着机器人技术已从行走、单腿站立、跳跃、上下楼梯、躲避障碍物等低层次机械重复动作,向后空翻、开枪射击、自主导航等“高大上”精细运动技能方向发展。尤其是美国“索菲娅”人形机器人首次被沙特授予公民身份,加速了人形机器人的“合法化”进程。

人形机器人技术的突飞猛进,得益于人工智能技术的快速发展,取决于巧妙绝伦的仿生结构设计和日新月异的驱动控制技术。

结构设计科学合理

所谓人形机器人,是指模仿人类双腿步行的仿生机器人,它具有一定智能水平,是仿生机器人中更灵巧、更智能的复杂机器人系统。合理的仿生设计是人形机器人发挥功能作用的基础。

其结构设计是基于仿生学原理,在提取人类结构精髓的基础上进行简化,开发出由各种关节组成的高度灵活性的类人机器人,通常由驱动机构、连杆机构、传动机构、减速机构、传感器和控制器等组成,模仿人的运动生理结构。

“阿特拉斯”人形机器人是由模拟人体结构和外形大小的两条胳膊、两条腿、躯干和头部等组成,其身高1.88米,重150千克。韩国“HUBO”机器人结构设计独特,在双膝上装有主动驱动轮,脚上配有被动轮,使其能在平地上快速而稳定地运动。美国卡内基·梅陇大学的“CHIMP”机器人采用可变形结构,使其既能像人类一样双腿直立,亦可将两个下肢变形成两个履带,或将四肢均变形为履带结构,还可根据任务不同灵活变换结构,如采用双履带结构移至车门,用双臂开门,随后变形为双腿直立结构下车。

驱动技术日新月异

驱动技术是人形机器人的动力来源。人形机器人一般采用液压、电机、形状记忆合金和气动人工肌肉等驱动技术,凭借良好的抗干扰性能,人形机器人一诞生就备受关注。

最初的“阿特拉斯”人形机器人是基于波士顿动力公司早期的“佩特曼”人形机器人研发改进而来,全身采用28个液压驱动关节,动力来自于功率为15千瓦的480伏三相电源,配备嵌入式液压泵,使用身体和腿部的传感器维持平衡,能够实现对闭环位置和力量的控制,具有出色的行走、单腿站立、跳跃、上下楼梯、躲避障碍等能力。改进型“阿特拉斯”去除了电源插头,更新了除小腿和脚之外约75%的系统,配备新型液压泵,调整了其臀部、膝盖和背部的驱动器,能在摔倒后自行起立,并具备无线通信能力。

动力装置采用可持续供电1小时的3.7千瓦锂离子电池,这是机器人最终能走出实验室的关键。日本“HRP-2”人形机器人采用电机驱动技术,配装紧凑型液冷电机和高输出驱动模块,能够实现在高转速和高转矩状态下不产生过热问题。

控制技术日臻成熟

运动控制和功能控制是人形机器人控制的主要内容。其中,运动控制涉及步态规划、步态控制以及高难度精细动作控制。如何设计步行机器人的腿间作用机制,实现复杂地形条件下的身体平衡自适应调整,生成稳健自如的自由步态,是必须解决的关键问题之一。

在“机动性与操纵能力最大化”项目下,美国国防部高级研究计划局已与多家研究机构签订合同,开展机器人控制技术研究,涉及基于环境的动态步态选择、身体重心调节以及动态稳定控制等多个方面。美国HRL实验室还将开展腿形运动、生物运动调节、深化对生物运动的认知研究,使人形机器人无论是在一马平川的平坦地面,还是在崎岖不平的山区,都能获得高速、灵巧的运动能力。

美国“阿特拉斯”和俄罗斯“菲多尔”机器人运动控制的重点主要集中在高难度精细动作的突破上。“阿特拉斯”人形机器人配备嵌入式实时控制计算机、激光雷达、立体传感器、专用传感器和感知算法软件等,可实时感知并计算控制力,不但能使身体在运动控制中保持平衡,还具备强大的目标探索识别能力,能够在室内和室外进行自主导航。

俄罗斯“菲多尔”人形机器人具有灵活的手指,可以使用各种工具,并具备一定的自主学习能力,能在规定场景中拿起仪器并操作,尤其是具备精准的射击能力,使其在军事作战方面表现出巨大的潜力。该机器人将成为俄罗斯“联邦”号新型宇宙飞船2021年首飞时的唯一“乘客”,并将参与2031年俄罗斯的探月计划。

随着人工智能技术研究的持续深入,各种高智能、多功能、反应快的人形机器人将不断“横空出世”。目前,一些军事强国正在积极研发具有一定思维、分析和判断能力,能够辨别敌我的“机器人士兵”,它们不仅能从事繁重的勤务支援保障工作,还可以直接遂行作战任务。届时,组建人形机器人部队走上一线战场,将不再是科幻大片的场景。

分类: 机器人

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